We did not limit our search to a specific time period. We focused on clinical efficacy and tolerability of the various drugs and procedures based on data from human studies. We included the best available studies for each discussed drug or procedure. These ranged from randomized controlled trials for some treatments, to small case series for others. Because the pain of acute CH attacks evolves rapidly, oral medications are usually not as effective for this
purpose as they are for migraine attacks. For rapid and effective pain control, the therapeutic agent needs to be given parenterally.1 The Ivacaftor research buy 5-HT1B/1D agonists (known as triptans), in an injectable or intranasal preparation, are a mainstay of acute CH treatment.1-3 Sumatriptan.— Sumatriptan, injected subcutaneously, is the drug of choice for acute CH attacks.1 The efficacy of the drug for this indication was examined in a number of well-designed studies.4-7 In 1 randomized, placebo-controlled study the efficacy of subcutaneous sumatriptan (6 mg) for acute CH treatment was examined.4 Data from 39 patients were evaluated. Headache severity decreased within 15 minutes in a significantly higher
proportion of sumatriptan-treated, Alectinib mw as compared with placebo-treated, attacks (74% vs 26 %). Also, a significantly higher proportion of sumatriptan-treated patients were pain
free 15 minutes after injection, as compared with those who received placebo (46% vs 10%). Sumatriptan was well tolerated. In another controlled study, subcutaneous sumatriptan at a dose of either 6 mg or 12 mg, or placebo, was given to 134 CH patients.5 Fifteen minutes after injection, the proportion of patients who experienced medchemexpress headache relief was 80%, 75% and 35% for sumatriptan 12 mg, sumatriptan 6 mg, and placebo, respectively. The higher dose of sumatriptan was not significantly superior to the lower dose, and was associated with more adverse effects (AEs). In an open-label study from the same group, the long-term safety and efficacy of subcutaneous sumatriptan was examined in 138 CH patients.6 Each patient treated a maximum of 2 attacks per day with a single injection per attack. A total of 6353 attacks, that occurred over 3 months, were evaluated. Headache relief was obtained in 96% of attacks. There was no evidence for decreased efficacy of the drug with continued use. Sumatriptan was well tolerated, and there was no increase in AEs with higher frequency of using the drug. In another open-label study, the efficacy and tolerability of sumatriptan in CH treatment were evaluated over a period of up to 1 year.7 The maximum daily dose of sumatriptan was 12 mg.