We tested whether major prey species’ activity and spatial use ac

We tested whether major prey species’ activity and spatial use acted as drivers for coexistence among large carnivores. Tiger exhibited cathemeral activity in the night and is spatially correlated with sambar and gaur, supporting hypotheses related to large-sized prey. Leopard was active throughout the day and is spatially correlated with almost all prey species with no active separation from tiger. Dhole exhibited diurnal activity and spatial use in relation to chital and avoided felids to a certain extent. Leopard exhibited spatial correlation with tiger and dhole, while

tiger did not correlate with dhole. Leopard exhibited relatively broader temporal and spatial tolerance due to its generalist nature, which permits opportunistic exploitation of resources. This supports the hypothesis that predators actively http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ldk378.html used areas at the same time as their principal prey species depending upon their body

Selleck STA-9090 size and morphological adaptation. We conclude that resource partitioning in large carnivores by activity and spatial use of their principal prey governs spatio-temporal separation in large carnivores. “
“Primates are typically subdivided into two fundamentally different groups: Strepsirrhini and Haplorrhini. These two suborders are differentiated by several anatomical characteristics, among which are features of the wrist and hand. Whereas strepsirrhines are characterized by an ectaxonic hand with a longer fourth digit, haplorhines display a mesaxonic hand with a longer third digit. Two complementary studies suggest that (1) an ulnarly deviated hand with respect to the forearm during locomotion

Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK is typical for ectaxonic hands and thin branches whereas mesaxonic hands display a less-deviated posture in relation to a more terrestrial type of locomotion; (2) ulnar deviations are not always produced by ectaxonic hands and may rather be associated with locomotion in an arboreal environment. The aim of this study was to explore how arboreal substrates influence the posture of the hand and the wrist in contact with the substrate. In this context, we assessed the grasping ability of the strepsirrhine Microcebus murinus, a highly arboreal species. Here we tested the effect of branch diameter (1 and 3 cm) and orientation (horizontal and vertical) on grasp choice during arboreal locomotion. Our results show that two hand postures were observed on horizontal substrates versus three-hand postures on vertical substrates. When ulnar deviation was observed, it was typically observed on vertical substrates, particularly on thick ones. In conclusion, our data show that vertical substrates increase the variability in grasping hand postures for M. murinus and include the use of uncommon grasps compared with horizontal substrates.

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