, 2011; Marín-Burgin & Schinder, 2012) Cancer drugs that cross t

, 2011; Marín-Burgin & Schinder, 2012). Cancer drugs that cross the blood–brain barrier in patients will also target dividing cells inside the brain. Therefore, changes in neurogenesis have been expected to contribute to at least some of the cognitive deficits occurring after chemotherapy. Venetoclax datasheet In an elegant approach, Nokia et al. (2012) tested whether a previously acquired trace-conditioned response

that is stored by mature, but not young, neurons would relate to new learning and task acquisition. Similar to clinical protocols, the authors used prolonged and repeated cyclic application of the commonly used chemotherapy drug temozolomide. They combined this treatment with bromodeoxyuridine pulse-labeling to show that long-term chemotherapy reduces newborn cell numbers. Interestingly, in parallel, the hippocampal

theta-band responses to the conditioned stimulus during trace eye blink conditioning were disrupted, but not those elicited during delay or very long delay conditioning, or during retention of an already acquired trace memory. As synchronized oscillatory activity may facilitate communication between related structures during learning, a disruption in theta activity after chemotherapy could prevent interregional communication from occurring, and hence explain deficits in learning. In conclusion, chemotherapy seems to disrupt learning in a very selective SD-208 in vitro manner, sparing forms of learning that appear to rely on mature neurons in the cerebellum, as well as sparing memories stored by mature neurons in the neocortex. Although targeted to affect mainly proliferating cells, temozolomide

may also have affected Buspirone HCl network integrity by detrimentally affecting the mature population of neurons and/or glia cells. Moreover, future studies should investigate how systemic administration of the drug can induce such selective theta-band responses in the hippocampus. Yet, as granule cells in the dentate gyrus are ‘gatekeepers’ of the signals entering the hippocampal tri-synaptic circuit, even small disruptions in dentate structure may already lead to functional deficits. These results from Nokia et al. (2012) are promising as they indicate that certain cognitive deficits after chemotherapy might not be irreversible. Indeed, long-lasting reductions in neurogenesis are generally not permanent (Crews et al., 2004; Lafenetre et al., 2011; Van Bokhoven et al., 2011; Hu et al., 2012), and even adverse effects of cancer treatment on cognition in animals may be rescued by stimulation of neurogenesis through exercise (Naylor et al., 2008; Hamani et al., 2011; Fardell et al., 2012). From a neurogenesis/cognition perspective, these data open up a new avenue of exploration; furthermore, the question of how adult neurogenesis might regulate oscillatory activity is important for a better understanding of cognitive/mnemonic processing. As such, the paper by Nokia et al.

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