3) To investigate whether the uptake of SpHtp1 can be caused by

3). To investigate whether the uptake of SpHtp1 can be caused by physical disruption of the membranes by Saprolegnia, a His-tagged SpHtp1 fusion protein without the putative signal peptide, SpHtp124-198-His, was synthesized in E. coli, purified and characterized (Fig. S6). Treatment with the final bleed SpHtp1 antibody in combination with the secondary antibody Fluor 488 showed no fluorescence in or on RTG-2 cells.

When the RTG-2 cells were treated with SpHtp124-198-His, no fluorescence was detected when the preimmune antiserum was used in combination PD-0332991 order with the secondary antibody Fluor 488, also showing that the treatment of SpHtp1-His did not affect the fish cells (Fig. 4). However, SpHtp124-198-His and final bleed SpHtp1 antibody-treated RTG-2

cells showed SpHtp124-198-His localization on the surface of the fish cells and also inside the fish cells, surrounding the nucleus (Fig. I-BET-762 solubility dmso 4). Furthermore, when the fish cells were incubated with SpHtp124-198-His and only labelled with the primary or the secondary antibody, no fluorescence was observed inside or outside the cells. Identical results were observed when an anti-His antibody was used for the immunolocalization studies (Fig. S7). Setting up a model infection system without having to sacrifice animals has many obvious advantages as it helps to fulfil the ultimate goal of the three Rs, whereby the aim is to reduce, refine and replace animals in experimental research. Here, we have shown that the trout RTG-2 cell line represents an excellent in vitro system for studying the very early interactions between

fish cells and S. parasitica, and that it can also be used to study the molecular mechanism of infection. Analysis of ESTs from zoospores and germinated cysts resulted in the identification of a putative RxLR effector protein, demonstrating that these types of proteins are possibly not only present in plant pathogenic oomycetes but also in animal pathogenic Oxymatrine oomycetes. SpHtp1 is expressed in the preinfection and the very early infection stages of S. parasitica, as are many RxLR effector genes from P. sojae and P. infestans (Whisson et al., 2007; Dong et al., 2009). Analysis of the protein sequence revealed that SpHtp1 lacks the ‘so-called’ EER motif, which is found closely behind the RxLR motif in about 500 putative P. infestans RxLR effector proteins (Whisson et al., 2007) (Fig. 1a and b). The EER motif in the PiAvr3a and PsAvr1b proteins seems to be required for effector translocation of P. infestans and P. sojae, respectively (Whisson et al., 2007; Dou et al., 2008a). However, another intracellularly recognized RxLR effector protein, Atr13 of Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, lacks the EER motif (Allen et al., 2004), suggesting that the presence of an EER motif is not always essential for the translocation of every RxLR effector into host cells, or for inducing a hypersensitive response.

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