Abbreviations ACSF artificial cerebrospinal fluid APP amyloid-precursor protein
EGFP enhanced green fluorescent protein GFAP glial fibrillary acidic protein 5-HT serotonin OMP olfactory marker protein QPCR quantitative real-time PCR TH tyrosine hydroxylase VGAT vesicular GABA transporter “
“Neuronal networks are thought to gradually adapt to altered neuronal activity over Talazoparib mw many hours and days. For instance, when activity is increased by suppressing synaptic inhibition, excitatory synaptic transmission is reduced. The underlying compensatory cellular and molecular mechanisms are thought to contribute in important ways to maintaining normal network operations. Seizures, due to their massive and highly synchronised discharging, probably challenge the adaptive properties of neurons, especially when seizures are frequent and intense – a condition common in early childhood. In the experiments reported here, we used rat and mice hippocampal slice cultures to explore the effects that recurring seizure-like activity has on the developing hippocampus. We found that developing networks adapted
rapidly to recurring synchronised activity in that the duration of seizure-like events was reduced by 42% after 4 h of activity. At the same time, the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in pyramidal cells, the expression of biochemical biomarkers for glutamatergic
synapses and the branching of pyramidal cell dendrites selleck chemical were all dramatically reduced. Experiments also showed that the reduction in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits and postsynaptic density protein 95 expression were N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent. To explore calcium signaling mechanisms in network adaptation, we tested inhibitors of calcineurin, a protein phosphatase known to play roles in synaptic plasticity and activity-dependent dendrite remodeling. We found that FK506 was able to prevent all of the electrophysiological, Carnitine dehydrogenase biochemical, and anatomical changes produced by synchronised network activity. Our results show that hippocampal pyramidal cells and their networks adapt rapidly to intense synchronised activity and that calcineurin play an important role in the underlying processes. “
“Cognitive Neuroscience Division, Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer’s Disease and the Aging Brain, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus is increasingly being employed as a treatment for parkinsonian symptoms, including tremor. The present studies used tremulous jaw movements, a pharmacological model of tremor in rodents, to investigate the tremorolytic effects of subthalamic DBS in rats.