However, few studies have been conducted in China using SCL-90 to

However, few studies have been conducted in China using SCL-90 to investigate the psychological Nutlin-3a mouse status of PLWHA. A Chinese version of SCL-90 was introduced in 1984 and modified according to China’s social and cultural conditions [19]. Validity studies have shown that the Chinese version of SCL-90 is acceptable for the detection

and study of psychiatric symptoms [20]. However, the norm of the Chinese SCL-90 was established in 1986, making it unsuitable for current use as China’s economy and society have changed so much. We used a control group instead of the norm of the Chinese SCL-90 in this investigation. A questionnaire was designed consisting of four parts: a brief personal demographic data section, a Chinese version of SCL-90, questions about the respondent’s psychosocial environment, and questions about his or her psychosocial experiences related to HIV infection. Apart from the SCL-90 section, all sections contained both open-ended and closed-ended questions. The open-ended

questions allowed for individually formulated answers. The closed-ended questions had multiple-choice responses. The demographic data questions recorded the participant’s gender, age, marital status, education, occupation etc. Respondents rated the 90 items of SCL-90 on five-point scales (1=‘not at all’, 2=‘a little bit’, 3=‘moderately’, 4=‘quite a bit’ and 5=‘extremely’) to measure PR-171 mouse the extent to which they had experienced the listed symptoms in the last 7 days. SCL-90 consists of nine subscales (somatization, obsessive–compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, anger/hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism) and an additional scale that measures disturbances in appetite and sleep. The items relevant to each subscale are averaged to give a subscale score and, additionally, Selleck Ponatinib all items are summed to give a total score. Any subscale score above 2.0 or a total score above 160 is considered

a threshold for identifying individuals who require further evaluation. Higher scores on the SCL-90 indicate more serious psychological distress [21]. The HIV-positive participants also answered a psychosocial experiences survey that inquired about their response to their HIV diagnosis, their disclosure of their diagnosis to others, the main pressures of their daily life, the attitude changes of the people around them (colleagues, neighbours, residents, medical staff and family members) and whether their families had encountered discrimination. HIV-positive people were recruited from the registered HIV-infected individuals databases of five local CCDCs in Zhejiang Province: Hangzhou, Wenzhou, Jinhua, Quzhou and Lishui. The five local CCDCs represent different areas of Zhejiang Province with differing social and economic characteristics.

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