However, in 2008 and 2009 the phytoplankton biomass increased and

However, in 2008 and 2009 the phytoplankton biomass increased and was greater than 10 mg dm−3 during the whole plant growth period. The hypereutrophy of the Vistula Lagoon waters in 2008 and 2009 is thereby confirmed by biotic parameters as well (Figure 3c). The dominance of blue-green algae and chlorophytes is characteristic

Selleck Panobinostat of eutrophic waters (Tremel 1996, Lepistö & Rosenström 1998). The dominance of these phytoplankton groups in the Vistula Lagoon was also reported by Pliński (2005), Rybicka (2005), Nawrocka et al. (2009) and Kobos & Nawrocka (2010). However, no detailed studies of the phytoplankton community structure have been carried out that could confirm such a high trophic index. The phytoplankton community structure in 2007–2009 indicated the eutrophic nature of Vistula Lagoon waters. The species characteristic of 8 out of 31 (according to Reynolds et al. 2002) or 40 (according to Padisák et al. 2009) functional groups of phytoplankton were present in the samples analysed. The contribution of group K (containing picoplankton) was significant in every sample. These organisms are characteristic of shallow and nutrient-rich waters, and significantly abundant colonial picoplankton is very common in eutrophic waters (Albertano et al. 1997, Komarková 2002). However, based on previous

studies, these species can dominate phytoplankton communities in both oligotrophic and hypereutrophic waters (Padisák et al. 2009). PLX-4720 ic50 Moreover, the contribution of the organisms from group J, which are common in shallow, mixed and highly enriched water bodies, was significant in all the samples. The species from codon S1 are characteristic of turbid, mixed environments, whereas those from codon R occur beneath the stratification in the metalimnion or upper hypolimnion of deep oligomesotrophic lakes. Their large why contribution to the total biomass (up to 25%, av. 11%) in

Vistula Lagoon waters indicates that phytoplankton species from the genera Pseudanabaena and Planktolyngba may also be found in eutrophic and even hypereutrophic waters. The species from codon X1 are characteristic of shallow, eu-hypereutrophic environments, whereas the organisms of group F are typical of clear and deeply mixed meso-eutrophic lakes. In the central part of the lagoon no blooms were noted of potentially toxic cyanobacteria of Dolichospermum/Anabaena (in 2000 and 2001) and Microcystis (in 2003, 2005 and 2006) species. Such blooms had been observed earlier in the coastal zone of the Vistula Lagoon ( Rybicka 2005, Browarczyk & Pliński 2006, Browarczyk & Pliński 2007, Kobos 2007). The phytoplankton structure and biomass, plus the chlorophyll a and nutrient concentrations indicate that the Vistula Lagoon ecosystem is stable and eutrophic.

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