However, this ability is of special significance in the Spanish r

However, this ability is of special significance in the Spanish ribbed newt due PI3K inhibitor drugs to the newly gained function in defence. A smooth and stable movement of the ribs, enabled by two-headed costo-vertebral joints, may be advantageous

when ribs are rotated forward to stretch the skin – in the case of P. waltl– to the point of piercing it. The proximal three-fourths of the ribs in Pleurodeles are filled with fat tissue, but the protrusible distal one-fourth is built up by massive bone, possibly to improve mechanical stability and decrease the probability of fractures. The protrusible tip is also coated with a thick periosteum. This tough sheath could also function as a physical barrier

against pathogens when the rib is protruded. Amphibians have an extraordinary ability to repair their skin, whereby antimicrobial peptides provide direct protection against certain bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens (for an overview, see Zasloff, 1987, 2002; Schadich, 2009). Pleurodeles Obeticholic Acid purchase waltl not only lives in a wet, microbially contaminated environment but also lacerates its skin during defence. Antimicrobial peptides, released from specialized cutaneous glands (Schadich, 2009), could be of special importance because dangerous infections through the wounds caused by rib protrusions seem to be avoided. The skin secretion of P. waltl also contains some poisonous components (Nowak & Brodie Jr, 1978; Heiss et al., 2009) that passively may seep into the body through the self-induced wounds, and yet we observed no self-intoxication by the newts. We therefore assume that P. waltl is immune against its own toxins. The high tolerance of urodeles against their own toxins has been demonstrated MCE by Brodie Jr & Gibson (1969). They showed that Ambystoma

gracile and Taricha granulosa were tolerant to the intraperitoneal injection of their own skin secretion, but reciprocal injections were lethal even in small amounts for both species. The clade within the Salamandridae that comprises the three genera Pleurodeles, Echinotriton and Tylototriton is known to be monophyletic – with Pleurodeles as a sister group to the branch that includes Echinotriton and Tylototriton (Weisrock et al., 2006). Interestingly, while Pleurodeles and Echinotriton protrude their ribs, Tylototriton does not (Nowak & Brodie Jr, 1978; Brodie Jr, 1983; Brodie Jr et al., 1984). It seems, therefore, that the use of ribs as concealed weapons within this monophyletic clade is ancestral rather than derived. Only Tylototriton has lost this ability through time. However, to confirm this statement, the detailed mechanisms in Echinotriton and Tylototriton need to be studied similarly.

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