putida cells derived from stationary-phase cultures than for thos

putida cells derived from stationary-phase cultures than for those plated from growing cultures (Kasak et al., 1997). Global host factors such as stationary-phase sigma PF-562271 chemical structure factor RpoS may also contribute to stationary-phase mutagenesis. For example, error-prone TLS DNA polymerase Pol IV is upregulated by RpoS in E. coli starving cells independent of dinB amplification

(Layton & Foster, 2003). Additionally, RpoS controls a switch that changes the normally high-fidelity process of double-strand break repair (DSBR), via homologous recombination, to an error-prone repair under stress (Ponder et al., 2005). Concerted induction of an SOS response and a RpoS-dependent general stress response in cells bearing double-strand DNA ends is proposed to differentiate cells into a hypermutable condition (Galhardo et al., 2009). Additionally, RpoS can act as a positive

regulator in the transposition of Tn3 family transposon Tn4652 in starving P. putida by controlling the transcription of the Tn4652 transposase CX-5461 solubility dmso gene tnpA (Ilves et al., 2001). The genus Pseudomonas within the Gammaproteobacteria constitutes a large diverse group of ubiquitous, mostly saprophytic bacteria that inhabit soil, water, plants and animals, and are well known for their broad metabolic versatility and genetic plasticity (Clarke, 1982). Pseudomonads are particularly well known for their ability to metabolize toxic organic chemicals, such as aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (Timmis & Pieper, 1999). They are often tolerant to noxious agents present in soil, including antibiotics, organic solvents and heavy metals. These organisms play an important role in the development of the soil community of microorganisms, but also in pathogenesis. For example, the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can thrive in a wide range of environmental niches including the human body, and its prominence as a pathogen is caused by its intrinsic resistance to antibiotics

and disinfectants (Stover et al., 2000). Pseudomonas aeruginosa can colonize human body sites, Methocarbamol including lungs of the cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and form biofilms on abiotic surfaces such as contact lenses and catheters. During prolonged CF infections, P. aeruginosa strains show a consistent pattern of genome modification that affects the expression of specific virulence traits (Boles et al., 2004; Smith et al., 2006; Boles & Singh, 2008; Conibear et al., 2009). Strains constitutively exhibiting elevated mutation frequencies have been reported among natural populations of P. aeruginosa (Oliver et al., 2000). Pseudomonas putida is a fast-growing bacterium found in most temperate soil and water habitats where oxygen is present. Pseudomonas putida is also able to colonize the surface of living organisms, but is generally considered to be of low virulence.

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