Recognizing the exciting potential for new STI vaccine developmen

Recognizing the exciting potential for new STI vaccine development to address the impact of STIs on global sexual and reproductive health MEK inhibitor and the need for new prevention strategies, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) co-edited this special issue of the journal Vaccine. To catalyze interest and action related to STI vaccine research and development, this special issue provides state of the art reviews on vaccine development for five priority STIs: HSV-2, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis,

and syphilis. Manufacturing and programmatic considerations for STI vaccine development and introduction are also addressed. The first article by Gottlieb et al. provides an overview of the global burden of STIs and their sexual, reproductive, and maternal-child health consequences [2]. The article also addresses the limitations of available interventions to control STIs, emphasizing the need for new STI vaccines for buy Olaparib effective STI prevention and control. In the following article, Garnett describes mathematical modeling related to the theoretical impact of STI vaccines and demonstrates that these vaccines would be cost-effective and their development a worthwhile investment [8]. The next articles address the scientific advances

underpinning development of the five specific STI vaccines. First, Brotman et al. describe the unique immunological characteristics of the reproductive tract, providing insight into the compartmentalization of the mucosal immune responses, the role of the microbiome, the impact of sex hormones, and the interactions among all of these factors [9]. Two articles stress the urgent need as well as significant opportunities for the development of vaccines against HSV: (1) Johnston et al. review previous HSV vaccine trials and outline new scientific

findings offering new directions for HSV vaccine development [10]; and (2) Knipe et al. report on an NIAID workshop on the next generation of HSV vaccines [11]. In addition, two articles outline the scientific advances providing new hope for development of a chlamydia vaccine. Hafner et al. describe current knowledge and future vaccine directions for control of genital chlamydial Endonuclease infection [12], while Mabey et al. review the lessons learned from efforts to Modulators develop a vaccine against ocular chlamydia (trachoma) [13]. Increasing gonococcal antimicrobial resistance has led to new urgency to develop a vaccine against gonorrhea, and Jerse et al. summarize technological advances that could lead to making this vaccine a reality [14]. Smith and Garber give an update of prospects for development of a vaccine against Trichomonas vaginalis infections [15], and Cameron and Lukehart discuss challenges and opportunities for development of an effective vaccine against syphilis [16]. Finally, an article by Dochez et al.

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