Source control is a broad term encompassing all measures undertaken to eliminate the source of infection and control JNK-IN-8 ongoing
contamination . The most common source of infection in community-acquired intra-abdominal infections is the appendix, followed by the colon, and then the stomach. Dehiscence complicates 5–10% of intra-abdominal bowel anastomoses and is associated with an increased mortality rate . Antimicrobial therapy plays an integral role in the management of intra-abdominal infections; empiric antibiotic therapy should be initiated as early as possible. Bacterial antibiotic resistance has become a very prevalent problem in treating intra-abdominal infections, yet despite this elevated resistance, the pharmaceutical industry has surprisingly few new antimicrobial agents currently in development. In the last decade, the increased emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Carbapenem-resistant eFT508 supplier Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, has foreshadowed a troubling trend and become an issue of key concern in the medical community regarding the treatment of intra-abdominal
infections. In the specific context of intra-abdominal infections, ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae pose the greatest resistance-related problem. Today these pathological microorganisms are frequently found in both nosocomial and community-acquired IAIs. The recent and rapid spread of serine carbapenemases in Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC) has become an important issue concerning antimicrobial therapy in hospitals worldwide and is of primary importance in properly optimizing the use of carbapenems based on a patient’s indication and exposure criteria . Study design The purpose of the CIAO Study is to describe the epidemiological, clinical, microbiological, and treatment profiles Org 27569 of community-acquired and healthcare-associated complicated intra-abdominal
infections (IAIs) based on the data collected over a six-month period (January 2012 to June 2012) from 66 medical institutions (see Figure 1) across Europe. This preliminary report overviews the findings of the first half of the study, which includes all data from the first three months of the six-month study period. Figure 1 Geographic distribution of the CIAO study. Patients with either community-acquired or healthcare-associated complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) were included in the study. In each treatment center, the center coordinator collects and compiles the data in an online case report database. The collected data include the following: (i) patient and disease characteristics, i.e.