The FTIR spectrum will therefore, exhibit peak for Al-OH and not

The FTIR SB273005 spectrum will therefore, exhibit peak for Al-OH and not due to loss of hydroxyl group (Figure 7). The OH group may be lost if Al(OH)3 is heated in open according to Figure 7 FTIR spectra. I: loaded particles (a); particles loaded with 10.0% (b), 100.0% (c) and 432.4% (d) monomolecular layer of phenanthrene. II: spectra obtained by subtraction of spectrum a from b, c and d, resulting in e, f and g, respectively. The band near 950 cm-1 is related to the surface characteristics of alumina nanoparticles [167]. The absorbance of phenanthrene can be distinguished in both spectra,

f and g [146]. Pure Al2O3 may exhibit a peak due to Al-O. This assignment, on BKM120 in vivo the basis of IR spectral data, may not be true. The authors [146] claim that dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) used in their experiment is LEE011 datasheet a

hydroxyl radical scavenger, and in aqueous medium, it removes the OH radical as shown below [168, 169]: The last equation is wrong in the above reactions. It should produce CH3OH not CH2OH. Generally, free radicals combine with another species to give a molecule. The effect of two fluorescent nanoparticles, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-silica nanoparticles and quantum dots (QD), on germination of rice seeds has been studied [170]. In addition, the uptake capacity of photostable CdSe QD and FITC-labelled silica nanoparticles (SNP) has also been studied. It was observed that germination in the presence of FITC-labelled SNP was Glutamate dehydrogenase enhanced while it was arrested with QD. Since the QD contain Cd as one of the known toxic metal ions, it may have reversibly

acted on germination of rice seeds. However, transport of both fluorescent nanoparticles has been observed in rice seedlings. The FITC-SNP appears to be useful to plants and has shown good fluorescence in rice seedlings. It is therefore suggested that it may be used for bioimaging in plant tissues because of the photostability of SNP. Bioimaging can be done only with the help of fluorescent materials especially in vivo. Since very limited study has been done in this direction [171], the exact nature and mechanism of transport of nanoparticles is not well understood. It can equally be used in mammals, but the toxicity of such nanoparticles in biological system must be checked prior to its use. Conflicting reports have been received about the toxicity of QD [172, 173] in mammals even though CdSe QD is known to arrest the root growth of rice seedlings. The useful application of metal or/and metal oxide nanoparticles is still a matter of controversy. In some cases, it has been found to be useful, while in many other instances, it appears to be phytotoxic [9–13]. The ZnO nanoparticles in this context have been used as growth promoter for Cicer arietinum and Vigna radiata seedlings [174]. They were monodispersed and their spherical shape was confirmed by SAED pattern (Figure 8). It was observed that in the case of V.

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