Thus, cluster analysis is as dependent on the selection of input

Thus, cluster analysis is as dependent on the selection of input variables as factor analysis. Latent class analysis (LCA) assumes the existence of a finite number of mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive groups of individuals. A latent class typology of schizophrenia, proposed by Sham et al,57 using data on 447 patients with nonaffective psychoses, suggested three subgroups: a “neurodevelopmental“ subtype resembling the hebephrenic form of the disorder (poor premorbid adjustment, early onset, prominent negative and disorganized

features); a “paranoid“ subtype Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (less severe, better outcome); and a “schizoaffective“ subtype (dysphoric symptoms). In an epidemiological Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical sample of 343 probands with schizophrenia and affective disorders, Kendler et al58 found 6 latent classes, broadly corresponding to the nosological forms of “Kraepelinian“ schizophrenia: major depression, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder (manic), schizoaffective disorder (depressed), and hebephrenia. Similar results, using a combination of principal component analysis and LCA in an epidemiologically ascertained sample of 387

patients with psychoses have Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical been reported by Murray et al.59 In contrast to conventional LCA, a form of latent structure analysis, known as grade of membership (GoM), allows individuals to be members of more than one disease class and represents the latent Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical groups as “fuzzy sets.” 60,61 The GoM model simultaneously extracts from the data matrix a number of latent “pure types” and assigns to each individual a set of numerical weights quantifying the degree to which that individual resembles each one of the identified pure types. When applied to the symptom profiles of 1065 cases in the WHO

International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia,62 the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical method identified 8 pure types of which 5 were related to schizophrenia, 2 to affective disorders, and 1 to patients in remission, all showing significant associations with course and outcome variables used as external validators. Familial-sporadic schizophrenia Subtyping schizophrenia by the presence/absence of a positive family history for schizophrenia spectrum disorders was proposed as a strategy expected to be more successful in resolving heterogeneity than symptombased typologies.63 Familial (F) cases are usually defined as having >1 affected first-degree L-NAME HCl relative, while sporadic (S) cases have no affected first- or second-degree relatives. The F/S dichotomy rests on the assumption that familial aggregation is primarily of a genetic origin, while sporadic cases result from environmental insults (eg, maternal obstetric complications) or de novo somatic mutations. In the majority of studies using this classification, the proportion of familial cases was in the range of 8% to 15%.

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