18, 19 and 25 Results indicated that the incubation of macrophages with compounds 5 and 4 resulted in a highly significant increase (P < 0.05) in the cells proliferation at the highest tested dose and that this dose-dependent increase started from the lower tested dose and reached 1.63- and 1.42- fold of the control, respectively, at the highest tested dose, indicating immunomodulatory activity. 11 Treatment of macrophages with the extract and compound 11 showed a non-significant
increase (P > 0.05) in the macrophage proliferation at any of the tested dose ( Fig. 3). Results of the anti-inflammatory activity of the Selleck R428 tested samples (80% MeOH leaf extract, compounds 4, 5 and 11), evaluated by Griess assay showed inhibitory effect on NO generation in the supernatant of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) – stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells as the following order: compound 4 > 5> extract >11 as indicated from the inhibition percentages: 68.19%, 52.95%, 20.33%, and 15.22%, respectively, where quercetin-3-O-arabinoglucoside (compound 4) was the most effective inhibitor of LPS-induced Selumetinib price NO generation (P < 0.01), implying enhanced anti-inflammatory activity 26 ( Fig. 4). Results showed that the tested
samples revealed an inhibitory effect on TNF-α secretion to a variable extent, as the following order: compound 4 > 5 >extract > 11 as indicated from
the inhibition percentages: 70.82%, 29.88%, 13.13%, and 6.14%, respectively, (P < 0.01), where quercetin-3-O-arabinoglucoside (compound 4) was the most effective inhibitor indicating anti-inflammatory activity 15 ( Fig. 5). Results Phosphoprotein phosphatase indicated that the treatment of Hep-G2, MCF-7 and HCT-116 cells with the different tested samples was safe and possessed a non cytotoxic effect against different cell types with IC50 values >50 μg/ml,8 except for compound 11, which was cytotoxic only against HCT-116 cells, as indicated in the dose response curve (Fig. 6) and the low IC50 value of 27.67 μg/ml. The 80% MeOH leaf extract, was evaluated for antibacterial activity using Ciprofloxacin, broad spectrum antibiotic as a positive control and 80% methanol solvent as a negative control, results showed that the leaf extract had significant effect against S. aurous, S. pyogenes, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia and P. mirabilis with inhibition zone Ø values of 18, 20, 15, 20, 15 and 17 mm, respectively. Moreover it inhibits the growth of K. pneumonia strain which is a sensitive strain resistant to Ciprofloxacin antibiotic. In conclusion, the methanol leaf extract of R.