28 These approaches, however, do not consider the highly interact

28 These approaches, however, do not consider the highly interactive nature of CKD with hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The United States Renal Data System has shown that decision tree-analysis provides evidence that the interactions are considerable, with age 65 years as the first cut for risk, diabetes in people aged less than 65 years as the second cut, hypertension the third cut and age 52 years a final cut; for people aged older than 65 years, diabetes enters at the third level.28 Based on this approach from recursive regression, the major risk groups for targeted screening would be people aged

50 years or older, and people with diabetes and hypertension aged less than 50 years. Other high-risk groups may FK506 nmr be considered; however, no cost-effectiveness analyses have been done based on these high-risk populations. The National Kidney Foundation has more than 10 years of field experience with the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP), a targeted screening program directed

at the general population with self-reported diabetes, hypertension or family history of these diseases or kidney disease. These criteria were developed in the mid-1990s based on diabetes and hypertension being the leading causes of ESRD, accounting for 71% of all cases, and on increased ESRD rates in family members of dialysis patients, particularly from selleck products genetic diseases and among black subjects.29 Through 2007, KEEP reported on 89 000 individual participants who participated in screening events; 28% showed evidence of CKD compared with 13% in the general population.30 Thus, design principles of a screening program should start

with population-level estimation of Inositol oxygenase kidney disease that can be assessed based on general population characteristics such as age, sex, race, chronic disease burden, height and weight. If population-level data are not available, community-based non-random samples may be available that can be used to predict the likelihood of CKD based on the demographic characteristics noted above. Lastly, basic information on the primary causes of ESRD can be used to develop the high-risk populations, the approach used to develop KEEP. Subsequent population-level risk-factor analyses have reached the same conclusions using more sophisticated analytical approaches. Public education programs can be developed and implemented through government activities or non-governmental organizations based on the above principles. Examples of such programs include KEEP and the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention CHERISH (CKD Health Evaluation Risk Information Sharing) program in the USA, Kidney Evaluation for You (KEY) in Australia and the PREVEND (Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease) study in the Netherlands.

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