(C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The results of two Vorinostat price randomized clinical trials (RCTs) demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of alternatives to casting for certain ankle and wrist fractures. We illustrate the use of value of information (VOI) methods for evaluating the evidence provided by these studies with respect to decision making.\n\nStudy Design and Setting: Using cost-effectiveness data from these studies, the expected value of sample information (EVSI) of a future RCT can be determined. If the EVSI exceeds the cost of the future trial for any sample
size, then the current evidence is considered insufficient for decision making and a future trial is considered worthwhile. If, on the other hand, there is no sample size for which the EVSI exceeds the cost, then the evidence is considered sufficient, and no future trial is required.\n\nResults: We found that the evidence from the ankle study was insufficient to support the adoption of the removable device and determined the optimal sample size for a future trial. Conversely, the evidence from the wrist study was sufficient to support the adoption of the removable device.\n\nConclusions: SRT1720 inhibitor VOI methods provide a decision-analytic alternative to the standard hypothesis testing approach
for assessing the evidence provided by cost-effectiveness studies and for determining sample sizes for RCTs. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Spatial gradients of vehicular emitted air pollutants were measured in the vicinity of three roadways in the Austin, Texas area: Selleckchem LCL161 (1) State Highway 71 (SH-71), a heavily traveled arterial highway dominated by passenger vehicles; (2) Interstate 35 (I-35), a limited access highway north of Austin in Georgetown; and (3) Farm to Market Road 973 (FM-973), a heavily traveled surface roadway with significant truck traffic. A mobile monitoring platform
was used to characterize the gradients of CO and NO(x) concentrations with increased distance from each roadway, while concentrations of carbonyls in the gas-phase and fine particulate matter mass and composition were measured at stationary sites upwind and at one (I-35 and FM-973) or two (SH-71) downwind sites. Regardless of roadway type or wind direction, concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) returned to background levels within a few hundred meters of the roadway. Under perpendicular wind conditions, CO, NO and NO(x) concentrations decreased exponentially with increasing distance perpendicular to the roadways. The decay rate for NO was more than a factor of two greater than for CO, and it comprised a larger fraction of NO(x) closer to the roadways than further downwind suggesting the potential significance of near roadway chemical processing as well as atmospheric dilution.