Healthy unexposed fetuses of women without mental disorders compr

Healthy unexposed fetuses of women without mental disorders comprised the control group (n = 130). Ultrasonographic observations of fetal behavior were made three times in pregnancy (T1-T3). Effects of SSRIs were studied over a wide range

of dosages (low, standard, or high) and for different drug types. Fetuses exposed to standard or high SSRI dosages compared with control, unmedicated, or low-medicated fetuses showed significantly increased motor activity at the beginning (T1) and end of the second trimester (T2). They particularly exhibited disrupted emergence of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM; quiet) sleep Ro 61-8048 cell line during the third trimester, characterized by continual bodily activity and, thus, poor inhibitory motor control during this sleep state this website near term (T3). The SSRI effects on the fetus were dose related, but independent of SSRI type. The results demonstrate changes in fetal neurobehavioral development associated with standard and high SSRI dosages that are observable throughout gestation. A first-choice SSRI type was not apparent. Bodily activity at high rate during non-REM sleep in SSRI-exposed fetuses is an abnormal phenomenon, but its significance for postnatal development is unclear. Neuropsychopharmacology (2011)

36, 1961-1971; doi:10.1038/npp. 2011.67; published online 27 April 2011″
“The intense associative memories that develop between drug-paired contextual cues and rewarding stimuli or the drug withdrawal-associated aversive feeling have been suggested to contribute to the high rate of relapse. Various studies have elucidated the mechanisms underlying the formation and expression of drug-related cue memories, but how this mechanism is maintained

is unknown. Protein kinase M zeta (PKM zeta) was recently shown to be necessary and sufficient for long-term potentiation maintenance and memory storage. In the present study, we used conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion (CPA) to examine whether PKM zeta maintains both morphine-associated reward memory and morphine withdrawal-associated aversive memory in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). We also investigate PRKD3 the role of PKM zeta in the infralimbic cortex in the extinction memory of morphine reward-related cues and morphine withdrawal-related aversive cues. We found that intra-BLA but not central nucleus of the amygdala injection of the selective PKM zeta inhibitor ZIP 1 day after CPP and CPA training impaired the expression of CPP and CPA 1 day later, and the effect of ZIP on memory lasted at least 2 weeks. Inhibiting PKMz activity in the infralimbic cortex, but not prelimbic cortex, disrupted the expression of the extinction memory of CPP and CPA.

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