The substantial rate of unvaccinated young adults here suggests t

The substantial rate of unvaccinated young adults here suggests that vaccine coverage among adults older than 19 may be even more concerning. Therefore, we must continue our efforts to vaccinate individuals younger than 20.

In addition, prevention and awareness campaigns must be improved. selleck chemical These campaigns should promote safe sex and reach all people. Furthermore, the creation of vaccination campaigns targeted at adults should be evaluated, in order to decrease the rate of HBV infections. With a decrease in rates of HBV, public health resources could potentially be redirected from treating HBV to treating other diseases that cannot be so easily prevented. The present study was supported by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development – CNPq – Brazil. The authors would like to thank the Air Base of Florianópolis and the Hemocenter of the University Hospital of the Federal University of Santa Catarina for all of their support. “
“Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are among the main causes of death in the world. This gram-positive, encapsulated bacterium is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia and is often implicated in other diseases such as otitis, sinusitis and meningitis, as well as septicemia and bacteremia [1], [2], [3] and [4].

In recent years, an increasing number of strains have shown resistance to different kinds of antibiotics, making the treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia infections a major

public health issue [1] and [3]. At the present time there are two kinds of vaccines available on the world market against S. pneumoniae: PD0325901 mw polysaccharide vaccines and conjugate vaccines. Polysaccharide vaccines are made from the capsular polysaccharides of S. pneumoniae, but their protection period is limited and they are not very effective on children under 2 years of age or with a compromised immune system [2], [4] and [5]. Conjugate also vaccines, made from capsular polysaccharides conjugated to proteins [6], have proved effective with children and adults. However, they are limited to certain serotypes and are very expensive [5] and [7]. In recent years several groups have been investigating different proteins associated with this bacteria for their potential use in a protein-based vaccine with broader effectiveness at a lower cost [1], [2], [5], [7], [8], [9] and [10]. One such protein with the potential to be used as an antigen for a vaccine is the protease ClpP, which appears well conserved and prevalent among the different S. pneumoniae serotypes. ClpP is known as a heat shock protein, which protects bacteria against adverse effects caused by elevated temperatures (for example), raising their survival levels. Mutant strains of S. pneumoniae in this protein become less virulent, and immunizations of mice using ClpP show that it can provide protection against pneumococcal infections [11] and [12].

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