Thus, increased production of PpiD restores viability of surA skp

Thus, increased production of PpiD restores viability of surA skp cells but it does not completely compensate for the growth defect caused by the simultaneous lack of the SurA and Skp chaperones. Figure 2 Suppression of the lethal phenotype of surA skp cells by multicopy ppiD. (A) Schematic representation of PpiD and its variants used in this study, with amino acid residues numbered as in the full-length PpiD polypeptide. Diagonally striped box: transmembrane segment; white box: N-terminal

region; Gray box: parvulin domain, with alanine substitutions indicated by black bars. PpiDΔTM was preceded by the SurA signal peptide so that it would be secreted into the periplasm (see Methods). (B) Growth of the SurA-depletion strain P Llac-O1 -surA Δskp (SB44452) carrying pASK75 (empty vector), pSurA, pSkp, and pPpiD, respectively. Cells were grown overnight in the presence of IPTG, after dilution spotted on LB buy SRT2104 plates ± IPTG, and incubated at 37°C for 16-24 h. (C) Growth of the strains P Llac-O1 -surA (SB44454) and P Llac-O1 -surA Δskp (SB44452) at 37°C in liquid LB with (solid lines) and without (dotted lines) IPTG, resulting

in the indicated “”genotypes”" wild-type (WT), surA, skp, and surA skp. The asterisk marks the point of sub-culturing (see Methods). Within the framed interval samples were taken for further analysis. Note that the Selleckchem AZD8931 Δskp surA strain containing pASK75 or pPpiDΔTM resumed growth after ~360-minute cultivation without IPTG. Western blotting revealed that at PI-1840 this point the cells also resumed production of SurA (see additional file 3). In contrast, SurA levels remained low in Δskp surA pPpiD cells during the entire course of growth, indicating that increased PpiD levels compensate for the simultaneous lack of SurA and Skp. (D) PpiD proteins in P Llac-O1 -surA Δskp cells after 240-minute growth in LB without IPTG. LY3023414 cell line Extracts from 4 × 107 cells were loaded in each lane and analyzed by western blotting. Lane 8 shows lane 6 after prolonged development

of the blot to visualize the protein. Cytoplasmic Hsc66 served as a loading control. Data for one representative experiment are shown. Suppression of surA skp lethality does not require the parvulin domain but the membrane-localization of PpiD The lethal phenotype of surA skp cells has been suggested to result from loss of periplasmic chaperone activity [10]. Consistent with this assumption, we found that the chaperone module of SurA (SurAN-Ct), which is devoid of any PPIase activity [2], is sufficient to fully complement the growth defect of the P Llac-O1 -surA Δskp strain in the absence of IPTG (Figure 2B). To also dissect the activities and regions of PpiD required for complementation of surA skp lethality, we substituted amino acids G347 and I350 in its parvulin domain with alanine, generating the proteins PpiDG347A and PpiDI350A, respectively.

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