For each tube, two dilution series were made, and the average val

For each tube, two dilution series were made, and the average values were used. Statistical significance was calculated using Student’s t-test. To study the effects of catalase, the experiment was repeated with hemin-supplemented media. For statistical analysis, four (OG1RF) and three (EMB2, EMB15) independent experiments were performed. Cells

from an overnight culture in check details TSB with and without hemin added were used to inoculate 50 mL of the same medium to an OD600 nm of 0.05. Two identical cultures for each strain were prepared, and after incubation for 2 h, 0.3% glycerol was added to one of them and water to the other. Incubation was continued for additional 100 min, and growth was recorded by OD600 nm. Cell extracts were prepared from cells grown in hemin-supplemented TSBG to OD600 nm = 0.3. Cells were harvested by centrifugation for 10 min at 5000 g and 4 °C, and the pellet was washed once in TES (50 mM Tris·HCl pH 7.5, 5 mM EDTA, 50 mM NaCl) solution. Cell pellets were suspended in 50 mM KPO4 pH 8.0, and the suspension was transferred to 2-mL screw-cap tubes containing 1.75 g zirconia/silica beads (d = 0.1 mm). Cells were lysed using a FastPrep instrument (MPbio) for 3 × 20 s at 6 m s−1. Debris and unbroken cells were removed by centrifugation for 30 min at 5000 g and 4 °C. Supernatants were subjected Selleck Ribociclib to SDS-PAGE (Schägger & von Jagow, 1987). Proteins were then transferred by

electroblot onto a PVDF membrane (Millipore). KatA antigen was detected using rabbit anti-KatA antiserum (Frankenberg et al., 2002) and a horseradish peroxidase-coupled anti-rabbit secondary antibody (GE Healthcare). For detection, the Super Signal West pico kit (Pierce) and a Kodak Imager Rutecarpine station were used. Catalase activity was measured by adding 25 μL of cell extract to a cuvette containing 0.1% hydrogen peroxide in 1 mL of 50 mM KPO4 pH 7.0. The rate of hydrogen peroxide decomposition was recorded as the change in absorption at 240 nm. The extinction coefficient for hydrogen peroxide (ε240 = 0.0436 cm2 μmol−1)

was used to calculate catalase activity units. One unit decomposes 1 μmol hydrogen peroxide min−1. The cytotoxic effects of externally provided hydrogen peroxide are dependent on both the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the duration of the treatment. To analyze concentration-dependent killing, increasing amounts of hydrogen peroxide (up to 60 mM) were added to cells of E. faecalis strain OG1RF grown in TSBG (a heme-free medium) to mid-exponential growth phase (2 × 107 CFU mL−1). After hydrogen peroxide addition, the cells were kept at room temperature for 15 min, a time period that was found to result in moderate killing (50% survival after treatment with 15 mM hydrogen peroxide), and the number of surviving cells was determined by viable counts on agar plates. The effect of hydrogen peroxide was concentration dependent, as expected, and at 60 mM, 1% of the cells survived the treatment (Fig. 1). To determine the impact of E.

This entry was posted in Antibody. Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>