Sham-lesioned controls were microinjected with vehicle Two exper

Sham-lesioned controls were microinjected with vehicle. Two experiments Selleck Idelalisib were conducted to determine DSAP lesion effects on EPMZ behavior. DSAP lesions did not alter maze behavior in rats after intraperitoneal saline, and did

not alter the significant effect of prior maze experience to reduce exploratory and open arm maze activities. However, in maze-naïve rats, DSAP lesions abolished YO anxiogenesis in the EPMZ. Post-mortem immunocytochemical analyses confirmed that DSAP consistently ablated caudal NST-A2/C2 and VLM-A1/C1 neurons that innervate the anterior vlBST. DSAP lesions did not destroy non-NA inputs to the anterior vlBST, and produced inconsistent cell loss within the pontine locus coeruleus (A6 cell group) that was unrelated to YO anxiogenesis. Thus, the ability of YO to increase anxiety-like behavior

in the EPMZ depends on hindbrain NA neurons that target the anterior vlBST. “
“The endogenous opioid enkephalins (ENK) are highly expressed in the central nucleus of the amygdaloid complex (CeA) where several lines of evidence point to a potential role in the modulation of fear and anxiety. In this study, we aimed to assess the role of CeA ENK using local injections of a lentiviral vector expressing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) Sirolimus mouse targeting ENK in Sprague–Dawley rats. We injected this vector in the CeA and a 56% downregulation Anacetrapib of ENK mRNA was observed in animals when compared with scrambled shRNA animals. Anxiety-like behaviors were also assessed using the elevated plus maze and social interaction test. There was an increase in exploration of open arms of the elevated plus maze in ENK knockdown animals compared with controls, but no change in social interaction. In addition, we used the contextual fear conditioning procedure to assess fear expression and learning in these animals. There was a reduction in freezing induced by acute

shocks during the training procedure. Interestingly, associative learning was not affected, and ENK knockdown animals displayed an equivalent freezing when re-exposed to the conditioning chamber 48 h later. These results contrast with knockout mice studies, which ascribed anxiolytic properties to ENK, and they demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding and characterization of neuroanatomically distinct ENK pathways. “
“The central circadian pacemaker of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) is a bilaterally symmetrical structure. Little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying communication between the left and right SCN and yet the degree of synchronization between SCN neurons can have a critical impact on the properties of the circadian system.

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