Moreover, our in vitro studies with eNOS−/− hepatocytes suggest t

Moreover, our in vitro studies with eNOS−/− hepatocytes suggest that EGF-mediated hepatocyte proliferation

Deforolimus is critically dependent on intact EGFR-PI3K/AKT-eNOS signaling. Collectively, these results highlight a hitherto unrecognized role for eNOS activation in hepatocyte proliferation, with implications for the development of targeted therapies to enhance liver regenerative response in chronic liver disorders. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. “
“Identification of therapeutic targets against tumor-initiating cells (TICs) is a priority in the development of new therapeutic paradigms against cancer. We enriched a TIC population capable of tumor initiation and self-renewal by serial passages of hepatospheres with chemotherapeutic agents. In chemoresistant hepatospheres, CD47 was found to be up-regulated, when compared with

differentiated progenies. CD47 is preferentially expressed in liver TICs, which contributed to tumor initiation, self-renewal, and metastasis and significantly affected patients’ clinical outcome. Knockdown of CD47 suppressed stem/progenitor cell characteristics. CD47+ hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells preferentially secreted cathepsin S (CTSS), which regulates EGFR inhibitor liver TICs through the CTSS/protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) loop. Suppression of CD47 by morpholino approach suppressed growth of HCC in vivo and exerted a chemosensitization effect through blockade of CTSS/PAR2 signaling. Conclusion: These data suggest that CD47 may be an attractive therapeutic target

for HCC therapy. (Hepatology 2014;60:179–191) “
“Distinct mechanisms are believed to regulate growth of the liver during fetal development and after injury in adults, because the former relies on progenitors and the latter generally involves replication of mature hepatocytes. However, chronic liver injury in adults increases production of Hedgehog (Hh) ligands, developmental morphogens that control progenitor cell fate and orchestrate various aspects of tissue construction during embryogenesis. This raises the possibility that similar Hh-dependent Pyruvate dehydrogenase mechanisms also might regulate adult liver regeneration. The current analysis of murine liver regeneration after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH), an established model of adult liver regeneration, demonstrated that PH induced production of Hh ligands and activated Hh signaling in liver cells. Treatment with a specific Hh signaling inhibitor interfered with several key components of normal liver regeneration, significantly inhibiting progenitor responses, matrix remodeling, proliferation of hepatocytes and ductular cells, and restoration of liver mass. These global inhibitory effects on liver regeneration dramatically reduced survival after PH.

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