The number of spontaneously active VTA DA neurons was also reduced in PSE rats. The reduction was reversed by acute apomorphine that normally inhibits the impulse activity of DA neurons. The reversal effect suggests that PSE-induced reduction in the number of spontaneously active VTA DA neurons
is caused by overexcitation to the selleck chemical extent of depolarization block. Furthermore, the reduced number of spontaneously active VTA DA neurons was also reversed by acute psychostimulants (eg, amphetamine; cocaine), which in control rats inhibited the activity of VTA DA neurons. The reversal effect on VTA DA neuron in PSE animals represents an actual increase in the impulse activity. This effect might contribute to increased responding to psychostimulants and mediate increased addiction risk after PSE. Neuropsychopharmacology (2013) 38, 293-301; doi:10.1038/npp.2012.168; published online 5 September 2012″
“Background. Most mortality Studies of psychiatric patients published to date have been conducted in hospital-based systems of care. This paper describes a study of the causes of death and associated risk factors among psychiatric patients who were followed up over a 20-year period in an area where psychiatric care is entirely provided by community-based psychiatric services.
Method. All subjects in contact with the South Verona Community-based Mental Health Service (CMHS) over a 20-year period with an ICD-10
multiple regressions were used to assess the excess of mortality in the sample compared with the general population.
Results. The overall SMR of the psychiatric patients was 1.88. Mortality was significantly high among out-patients [SMR 1.71, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.6-1.8], and higher still following the first admission (SMR 2.61, 95% Cl 2.4-2.9). The SMR for infectious diseases was higher among younger patients and extremely high in patients with diagnoses of drug addiction (216.40, 95% CI 142.5-328.6) and personality disorders (20.87, 95% CI 5.2-83.4).
Conclusions. This study found that psychiatric patients in contact with a CMHS have an almost twofold higher mortality rate than the general population. These findings demonstrate that, since the closure of long-stay psychiatric hospitals, the physical health care of people with mental health problems is often neglected and clearly requires greater attention by health-care policymakers, services and professionals.”
“Selective dopamine D-3 receptor (D3R) antagonists prevent reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior and decrease the rewarding effects of contextual cues associated with drug intake preclinically, suggesting that they may reduce drug craving in humans. GSK598809 is a selective D3R antagonist recently progressed in Phase I trials.