They tended to keep on reading as long as the syntactic and lexic

They tended to keep on reading as long as the syntactic and lexical-syntactic requirements of the sentence had not been met. In 4 of the conditions twice as many omissions occurred when the final constituent was optional than when it was obligatory.

Text reading was also guided by a search for a “”happy end”" that does not violate syntactic or semantic requirements. Thus, the syntactic structure of the target sentence modulates reading and neglect errors in text-based neglect dyslexia, suggesting that the best stimuli to diagnose mild text-based neglect dyslexia are sentences in which the leftmost constituent is optional, and not required by syntax. Another finding of this study is dissociation between neglect dyslexia at the text and learn more at the word levels. Two of the participants had neglect dyslexia at the text level, manifested in omissions of words on the left side of text, without neglect dyslexia at the word find more level (namely, without omissions, substitutions, or additions of letters on the left side of words). (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Transcription of genes required for long-term memory not only involves transcription factors, but also enzymatic protein complexes that modify chromatin structure. Chromatin-modifying enzymes, such as the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB (cyclic-AMP response element

3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase binding) binding protein (CBP), are pivotal for the transcriptional regulation required for

long-term memory. Several studies have shown that CBP and histone acetylation are necessary for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Importantly, every genetically modified Cbp mutant mouse exhibits long-term memory impairments in object recognition. However, the role of the hippocampus in object recognition is controversial. To better understand how chromatin-modifying enzymes modulate long-term memory for object recognition, we first examined the role of the hippocampus in retrieval of long-term memory for object recognition or object location. Muscimol inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus prior to retrieval had no effect on long-term memory for object recognition, but completely blocked long-term memory for object location. This was consistent with experiments showing that muscimol inactivation of the hippocampus had no effect on long-term memory for the object itself, supporting the idea that the hippocampus encodes spatial information about an object (such as location or context), whereas cortical areas (such as the perirhinal or insular cortex) encode information about the object itself. Using location-dependent object recognition tasks that engage the hippocampus, we demonstrate that CBP is essential for the modulation of long-term memory via HDAC inhibition.

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